Description of energy losses of charged particles in matter

The 2018 edition of the Review on Particle Properties describes the Bethe formula for energy losses and we use this as baseline: rpp2018-rev-passage-particles-matter.pdf This is determined to order Z^{2} by quantum calculation.

A very interesting report and summary it also here: Ziegler, J. Appl. Phys / Rev. Appl. Phys., 85, 1249-1272 (1999) and webpage http://www.srim.org/index.htm

Sternheimer's approximation (R.M. Sternheimer, Phys. Rev. 88, 851 (1952)) for the high energy density corrections are also described in the RPP.

Data tables are taken from Sternheimer, ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA TABLES 30,26 l-27 1 (1984), see update here Groom et al. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 78, 183–356 (2001) and electronic tables from at http://pdg.lbl.gov/2018/AtomicNuclearProperties/index.html (see EXPERTS section), the data is also copied to EnergyLoss/Properties8.dat etc.

Barkas paper for original shell correction: https://www.nap.edu/read/20066/chapter/8 outdated, but simple to implement.

Shell correction are discussed by Bichsel 1992 in a more modern approach for heavy Z>56 targets: PhysRevA.46.5761.pdf

Barkas correction to the Bethe formula also describes differences between positive and negative projectiles.

There is an ICRU Update document from 2014: newstar.pdf

This paper describes improvements to the GEANT3 muon dEdX, which is used also in CORSIKA7: 1-s2.0-S016890020001007X-main.pdf The effects are only important for the >multi TeV region and concern radiative losses. A lot of cross sections are specified in the paper.